Such a large sample is not common in this kind of study [44,45]. Another strength of the study is that participation was possible in any of five languages, and this is likely to have been a key factor in achieving such a multicultural and multinational representation. (2018) . Analysis of microbiota in first episode psychosis identifies preliminary associations with … b156 Perceptual functions ). Original Article. With respect to the Activities and Participation component, all the categories that reached consensus (n = 32) form part of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. 19-39. Expert psychologists from around the world were recruited by contacting international associations of psychologists, universities with health professional training programs, and hospitals. Related Journal of Schizophrenia Disorder. The ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia are a list of ICF categories describing the most common problems in functioning of persons affected by this health condition. ICF Research Branch, a cooperation partner within the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in Germany (at DIMDI), Munich, Germany, Affiliations Personal factors were defined as the particular background of an individual’s life and living situation (e.g., age) . BMC Psychology is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers manuscripts on all aspects of psychology, human behavior and the mind, including developmental, clinical, cognitive, experimental, health and social psychology, as well as personality and individual differences. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the “characteristic symptoms” of schizophrenia are reviewed in the context of the development of DSM-IV . Although psychologists from all over the world took part, the Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and African WHO regions were under-represented, and this may limit the external validity of our results. It has a multifactorial etiology, with numerous individual variables interacting with several environmental factors . A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological … Formal analysis, The journal publishes novel papers that really contribute to understanding the biology and treatment of schizophrenic disorders; Schizophrenia Research brings together biological, clinical and psychological … Of the 1,555 health professionals who agreed to take part and who provided demographic and professional data, 223 were psychologists who met the eligibility criteria and who were therefore invited to begin round one of this study. Writing – review & editing. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Dangerousness, unpredictability and the fear of people with schizophrenia. Its lifetime prevalence is estimated at between 0.3% and 0.7%. A collection of recently published articles from subdisciplines of psychology covered by more than 90 APA journals. In order to facilitate comparison with previous studies that use the kappa index, we also calculated this statistic and its 95% CI . The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. Pettenkofer School of Public Health, Munich, Germany, The ICF is based on a multidimensional, biopsychosocial approach (see Fig 1) and considers a patient’s functioning as a dynamic interaction between the underlying health condition and specific personal and environmental contextual factors. Learn more about all the facets of schizophrenia here. Cite This For Me: The Easiest Tool to Create your Bibliographies Online. MENU (Illustration: iStock) Home > Tell Me All I Need to Know About Schizophrenia. Each ICF-CS comprises a selection of ICF categories that are considered essential for describing the functioning of a person living with the corresponding health condition. The Comprehensive ICF-CS categories that were selected by fewer than 50% of psychologists mainly referred to simple activities such as d210 Undertaking a single task and d330 Speaking, whereas consensus was achieved for the equivalent more complex categories (e.g., d220 Undertaking multiple tasks). Some of the categories that achieved higher consensus refer to cognitive functions, such as b164 Higher-level cognitive functions. No, Is the Subject Area "Clinical psychology" applicable to this article? Yes The goals of these interventions are manifold, with key targets being to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life, neurocognition, and family communication. From the experts’ answers in round one, a total of 7,526 concepts were extracted and linked to 412 ICF categories (219 second-level, 189 third-level, and 4 fourth-level). The disorder is characterized by the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, abnormal motor behavior (including catatonia), and negative symptoms. Software, Consequently, the WHO has established a protocol to develop ICF Core Sets (ICF-CSs) for specific health conditions. Four of the 17 categories that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia (b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study (see S1 Table for more details). Methodology, For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The research evidence for schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the “characteristic symptoms” of schizophrenia … There were no significant differences in age, gender, or years of experience in treating individuals with schizophrenia between the groups that responded across rounds 1 to 3. Specifically, 52% of invited experts who did not respond had less than five years’ experience in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, while this was the case for only 20% of the experts who did take part in the first round. Visualization, Volume 77, Issue 1. Click here to start building your own bibliography. Increased repulsion of working memory representations in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness that impairs a person's thoughts and behavior, and if untreated, can include psychosis. Volume 59, Issue 1. Section 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia . However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio- psycho -social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; … Yes Conceptualization, There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, or population treated (urban, rural, acute, and chronic) between psychologists who responded in the first round and those were invited to take part but did not do so. Conceptualization, The survey materials were independently translated and supervised by at least two native speakers. We found that the general public, psychology undergraduates and nursing students all believed people with schizophrenia are very different from themselves and highly unpredictable. Regarding Personal factors, which are not classified in the ICF, 33 concepts were presented to the experts, and 28 of these yielded consensus (see S5 Table). Formal analysis, This is likely due to the multidisciplinary approach that was used to develop this ICF-CS, which aims to cover the main intervention targets not merely of a specific professional group (in this case, psychologists) but of all health professionals involved in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia . Journal of Clinical Psychology. There has been only limited study of how individuals with schizophrenia experience mental illness stigma. Indeed, we sought to obtain a sample of experts that, as far as possible, reflected worldwide variety in all the variables considered (e.g., gender, age, years of experience, and region). Software, In addition, it was made clear that they should have at least one year experience of treating adults with schizophrenia. A basic requirement for the implementation of these ICF-CSs in clinical practice is their validation from different perspectives. The illness affects all aspects of cognition, emotion, perception, and behavior in ways that impact the individual with the illness, his or her family, and society. The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. [2 *], over 60 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have subsequently examined the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp).These trials have typically looked at the effectiveness of CBTp in improving the core symptoms of schizophrenia … BMC Health Services ... Keith Fear, Chris Hynes, Joanne Sullivan, Gary Moore, Bruce and Burns, Tom 2010. More Articles. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.t002. As in the previous study from the perspective of psychiatrists, the component with the second highest number of categories showing agreement of at least 75% was Environmental factors. Of the ICF categories that were selected by at least 75% of experts in the Delphi study, 96% feature in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia. Participants were provide with a written consent form. When films like Girl Interrupted (1999) and A Beautiful Mind (2001) were released to the public, people began focusing their attention on mental illness and its depiction in cinema. This validation study highlights the functioning-related issues that psychologists encounter in their work with individuals with schizophrenia and considers the extent to which these aspects are covered by the ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia. 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